Search Help

ICLR.3 supports two ways of searching Case Law. A single text box input is available on most pages, either in the header next to the ICLR.3 logo (as on this page), or just below the header. This single text box allows the user to search for terms using simple text matches, using the Search Syntax and Search Constraints outlined below, and by suggested Search Completion.

Searching

You may enter search terms and press <ENTER> to submit the query. For example, entering assange and pressing <ENTER> will take you to the search results for that query. Below is a table of specialist Search Syntax.

Search completion

The main search will complete as you type. It will complete on Case Names and Publication References. For example, if you type assa, the following options will be presented:

Selecting an option from the completions will take you to the Index Card for that case.

Alternatively, you may enter a Publication Reference. A Publication Reference will not complete until it matches a publication within ICLR.3. For example, searching for [1932] AC 562 will present the following single match:

Selecting this option will take you directly to the Law Report.

Search Syntax

Syntax Example Description
Any term snail bottle Match one or more terms. Adjacent terms and phrases are implicitly joined with AND.
AND snail AND bottle Matches documents containing both the terms separated by AND. AND is the default way to combine words and phrases and is equivalent to snail AND bottle.
"" "ginger beer" Terms in double quotes are treated as a phrase. If the exact phrase is not found, no results will be returned.
OR ginger OR beer Match either of two search terms. The example matches either ginger or beer. You can separate any number of terms with an OR; for example: snail OR ginger OR beer
() (ginger OR beer) snail Parentheses indicate grouping. The example matches documents containing at least one of the terms ginger or beer, and also contain the term snail
NEAR (ginger OR beer) NEAR snail At least one of the terms ginger or beer must occur within 10 terms of the word snail
NEAR/N ginger NEAR/15 beer Find documents containing matches to the queries on either side of the NEAR operator when the matches occur within N terms of each other. In this example N=15, so ginger and beer must occur within 15 words of each other in a document to be a match.
NOT_IN ginger NOT_IN "ginger beer" Match one term when the match does not overlap with another. The example matches ginger only when it does not occur in the phrase ginger beer.
- or NOT ginger -beer or ginger NOT beer A NOT operation matches documents where the term does not appear. In the example, documents where ginger occurs but where beer does not occur are matched.
: caseName:snail Finds documents that match the named constraint. In the example, the constraint is caseName and the term is snail. caseName is a configured constraint in ICLR.3. A list of constraints that can be used in searches is presented below.
LT judgmentDate LT 1971-01-12 For dates, matches the named constraint if it is less than the given date. In this example, if the Date of Judgment is less than 12 January 1971.
LE judgmentDate LE 1971-01-12 For dates, matches the named constraint if it is less than or equal to the given date. In this example, if the Date of Judgment is less than or equal to 12 January 1971.
GT judgmentDate GT 1971-01-12 For dates, matches the named constraint if it is greater than the given date. In this example, if the Date of Judgment is greater than to 12 January 1971.
GE judgmentDate GE 1971-01-12 For dates, matches the named constraint if it is greater than or equal to the given date. In this example, if the Date of Judgment is greater than or equal to to 12 January 1971.

Search Constraints

Constraint Example Description
caseName caseName:Donoghue Searches by Case Name. Note that partial words are not matched.
pubref pubref:"[1923] AC 562" Matches a complete publication reference.
catchwords catchwords:"European arrest warrant" Matches against the catchwords.
judge judge:Ungoed-Thomas Matches against the judges' names.
judgmentDate judgmentDate GE 2000-01-01 Matches the date of judgement. In the example, all cases on or after 1st January 2000 are matched. The format of the date must be yyyy-mm-dd.
yearOfJudgment yearOfJudgment:2000 Matches the year component of the date of judgement.
court court:"HL(E)" Matches an exact court abbreviation.

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